Definition of Vascular Plants

Definition of Vascular Plants
Definition of Vascular Plants, Characteristics, Types, Classifications and Examples: are a group of plants that have clear and distinctive vascular systems to deliver nutrients / nutrients from the soil by roots to the canopy section

Vascular Plants
Definition of Vascular Plants
Vascular plants or Trachaeophyta are a group of plants that have clear and distinctive vascular systems to channel nutrients / nutrients from the soil by the roots to the canopy and to transmit photosynthesis and metabolism from leaves to other parts of the body.

Vascular plants are also called tracheophytes (vascular binding plants).
Vascular Plants (Tracheophyta) are plants that have transport vessels and have body parts consisting of roots, stems, and true leaves. the root serves as a tool to absorb water and mineral substances. The trunk functions as a means of transportation and breathing. The leaves function as organs for photosynthesis.
The word Tracheophyta is often called a vascular plant. These vascular plants are classified as kingdom plantae or plants.

Vascular Plant Classification
The body structure of vascular plants is more complex than non-vascular plants. including vascular plants as follows:

Seedless Plants (Nail Plants)

Seed plants
1). Open Seed (Gymnosperms)

2). Covered seed (Angiospermae)
Types of Vascular Plants
Seedless Plants (pteridophyta / nail plants)
Seedless Plants (Nail Plants)
Nail plants (or ferns, Pteridophyta or Filicophyta), are a divisio plant that has a true vascular system (cormus) but does not produce seeds for its reproduction. Instead of seeds, this group of plants still uses spores as a generative propagation tool, just like moss and fungi.
Nail plants are spread in all parts of the world, except perennial snowy areas and arid regions (deserts). The total species are known to be almost 10,000 (an estimated 3,000 of which grow in Indonesia), most of which grow in the humid wet tropics. This plant tends to be resistant to limited water conditions, perhaps following the behavior of its ancestors in the Carboniferous period, also known as the golden age of ferns because it ruled the forests of the earth. Forest plant litter in this era which fossilized is now mined by people as coal.

 Various forms of nail plants, some in the form of trees (tree nails, usually not branching), epiphytes, floating in water, hydrophytes, but usually in the form of terna with rhizomes that spread on the ground or humus and ental (English frond) that support the leaves with varying sizes (up to 6 m). Young Ental always curl (like a violin handle) and become a characteristic of nail plants. Fern leaves are almost always compound leaves. Nail plants are often found to dominate the vegetation of a place so that they form large shrubs and suppress other plants.

Life cycle
The life cycle of ferns recognizes the rotation of offspring, which consists of two main phases: gametophyte and sporophyte. Nail plants that we can easily see are sporophytic phase forms because they produce spores. The gametophyte phase generation form is called protalus (prothallus) or protalium (prothallium), which is in the form of a small green sheet, similar to liverworts, not rooted (but has rhizoid as its replacement), no trunked, no leafy. Prothallium grows from spores that fall in moist places.
From prothallium develop anteridium (antheridium, spermatozoid-producing organs or male sex cells) and archegonium (archegonium, ovum or egg-producing organs). Fertilization absolutely requires the help of water as the spermatozoid medium moves towards the archegonium. The fertilized ovum develops into zygotes, which in turn grow into new ferns.
Seed plants (Spermatophyta) also have this cycle but have evolved further so that the gametophyte stage is not independent. The resulting spores instantly grow into stamens or embryo sacs.

1. Divisio Psilophyta
Psilophyta is also called naked nail which is the most primitive nail plant. Most of these nail plants have leaves, have a small structure and shaped scales. For example Psilotum.
These nail plants are grouped into several divisions. From the division of seedless plants without seeds, namely the division of Lycophyta (wire nails), Spenophyta or Equisetophyta (horse tail nails), Pterophyta (true nails), Psilophyta.

2. Foreign exchange Lycophyta
Lycophyta has a leaf-like structure and a wire-like stem. According to Campbell (1998: 550), this plant has 1,000 species. Some Lycophyta members live in tropical forests and live epitively on trees. As in the suptropical region, this plant lives in the basics of the forest. These spores are male and some are female.

3. Foreign Sphenophyta (Equisetophyta)
This species only has 15 species only, this plant is also called horsetail. Devisio also has leaves that are similar to wires arranged in a circle. The trunk is similar to a ponytail.
An example of this species is Equisetum. Equisetum has a hard stem because it has silica, also has rhizomes that are underground with upright stems that are dark green. Sporangium is found in a cone-shaped structure called Strobilus, producing only one type of spore. devisio is only a few melimeters in size. But capable of photosynthesis, and contained antheridium and archegonium.

4. Foreign exchange Pterophyta
Pterophyta is considered a true nail. According to Campbell (1998: 558), more than 12,000 species. Generally only live on land, especially in tropical regions like Indonesia. This plant has true stems, leaves and roots. Large leaves are also called megafiles. The stems can grow underground (like rhizomes) or above the ground. Typical Cirri in this foreign exchange is the leaves are easy to roll (circinnatus) and in the lower surface of the leaf there is sorus. Examples of these species include devisio are Aspleniumnidus (bird's nest spikes) and Adiantum cuneatum (suplir).

Seed plants
Seed plants
Seed plants are a group of plants whose generative breeding uses seeds produced by flowers. Inside the flower there is a breeding tool in the form of female and female sex cells. Seed plants have chlorophyll which is in charge of the process of photosynthesis. The root is located in the ground

Root Function:
1. strengthen the stem
2. respiratory organs
3. absorb water and mineral salts from the soil
4. store food reserves for example on cassava, carrots, dahlia flowers

root parts
1. hair root to absorb water and mineral salt
2. akat hood to penetrate the soil layer

The stem
1. transporting water and mineral salt from roots to leaves
2. transporting the results of photosynthesis from the leaves to all parts of the plant
3. respiratory organs (lenticell)

stem parts
1. a wooden vessel (xylem) for transporting water and mineral salts from roots to leaves
2. Vessels (phloem) to transport photosynthesis from leaves to all parts of the plant.

1. the site of photosynthesis
2. respiratory organs (stomata)
leaf parts
1. network of poles (palisade)
2. spongy tissue there are spots called chlorophyll which contain chlorophyll
3. leaf mouth (stomata) where air comes in and out
4. bundles of filter vessels and wooden vessels that form leaf bones

1. as a breeding tool
2. fertilization begins with pollination ie the fall of the stamens to the pistil's head

flower parts
1. flower stalk
2. basic interest
3. female genital pistil which produces female genital cells
4. male genital stamens that produce male sex cells
5. petals
6. flower petals