Get to know Scorpionidae and Arachnida

Get to know Scorpionidae and Arachnida
(1) Scorpionidae characteristics
(Kala, Scorpion) Scorpionidae body, consisting of the head that is united with the chest (cephalothorax) and the abdomen (abdomen), so that the back shrinks to form a tail.
In the cephalothorax there is a pair of mouth tools such as tongs called pedipalpi, which functions as a sense of touch as well as catching prey. A pair of small mouth tools called kelisera which functions to chew their prey, several pairs of large or small single eyes and four pairs of legs on the cephalothorax.
In the abdominal segments of the tail end, the shape is rounded and tapered, the tip is a stinging device that emits poison, useful for paralyzing the prey it has captured. While in the lower front abdomen there is a small hole (stigma) as a means of respiration associated with the trachea.

(2) Arachnid (Labah) Characteristics
Arachnid (spider) body consists of cephalothorax and abdominal abdomen, the part between cephalothorax and abdomen is streamlined. In the cephalothorax there is a pair of kelizer which can release toxins.
The function of this poison is to paralyze its prey, there is a pedipalpus which is used to suppress and chew its prey (food) and between the pedipalpus there is a small mouth hole.

(3) Characteristics of Acarinae (tick)
In the Acarinae (tick) there is a head, chest, and abdomen that are one and not segmented, having four pairs of legs that are segmented. Ticks live as parasites and some are free. If it lives as a parasite in dogs, the female tick will suck the dog's blood until its body swells. If you want to lay eggs, it will escape and choose a place to lay eggs, then die.
In humans, ticks can cause scurvy, which is living parasites on the skin. These ticks cause itching on the skin because female ticks when laying eggs make holes in the skin and eggs are laid in the trenches.

d) The characteristics of Myriapoda
Centipede or centipede body consists only of the head and body. There is no chest. On the head there are a pair of single eyes, a pair of large feelers, and a pair of small, broad-fingered tactics.
Each rear body segment there are paired legs. Myriapoda performs its respiration using the tracheal duct which empties into small holes (stigma), located on the walls of the body segments. The hole is called a spiracle. The circulatory system is open and the heart is located on the back. The nervous system is a rope ladder nervous system.

Arthropod body size and shape
Arthropod body sizes vary, some are smaller than 0.1 mm (for example mites and ticks) to those larger than 3 m (for example Macrocheira kaempferi crabs). Arthropod body shape varies greatly. His body is bilateral symmetry and protected by an exoskeleton (outer frame).
Arthropods have limbs with different structures and functions, such as wings to fly, legs to walk or swim, claws to catch prey, copulation devices, devices to defend the body, and sensory receptor devices.

Arthropod body structure and function
Arthropod body consists of segments with varying amounts. Segments of the body can be divided into parts of the head (head), chest (thorax), and abdomen (abdomen). The Arthropod's body is encased in a cuticle or an outer framework (exoskeleton) and chitin.
The exoskeleton cannot grow enlarged, so that at times Arthropods must release their old exoskeleton and secrete a new exoskeleton that is larger in accordance with their body size. The process of releasing an exoskeleton in an arthropod is called molting or ecdysis. Molting requires enormous energy. During molting, animals hide, do not eat, and are vulnerable to predators.
Arthropod food digestive system is complete, starting and mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and anus. The circulatory system is open, consisting of the heart, short arteries, and sinuses. Sinus is a room that surrounds tissues and organs. Sinuses are called hemosols. Blood fluid in arthropods is called hemolymph.

Arthropods breathe with gills, tracheal system, book lungs, or body surfaces. The trachea system consists of branched airways. Air exchange occurs through respiration holes in each segment of the body called spiracles or stigma.
Excretion tool is in the form of Malpighi tubules or excretion glands. The nervous system is in the form of a rope ladder nervous system that is equipped with a ganglia or brain. Arthropod sensory organs develop well, namely the eye for sight, antennas for touch and smell, and olfactory receptors as the sense of smell.

Arthropod Organ System
Arthropod Digestive System: Arthropod digestion is a perfect digestive system equipped with a complete digestive apparatus consisting of the mouth, esophagus, intestine, and anus. The mouth is equipped with mouth and anus tools located in the posterior segment
Arthropod Circulatory System: Arthropod blood circulation is open and the blood is blue, because it contains hemocyanin.
Arthropodic Respiratory System: Arthropods have a respiratory system in the form of trachea, gills, book lungs or through the entire surface of the body.
Arthropod Excretion System: Arthropods have excretion systems in the form of green glands or with malpigih vessels that form in the back intestine
Arthropod Nervous System: The arthropod nervous system consists of a rope ladder and an antenna in the form of an antenna. Ganglia functions as a reflex center and controls all activities
Arthropod Reproductive System: Arthropod reproduction is carried out sexually and asexually (parthenogenesis and pedogenesis). Arthropod's reproductive system is separate, meaning that there are male animals and female animals.

How to Arthropod Reproduction
Arthropods reproduce generatively. In general, gonokoris or genitals are located in different individuals, but there are also hermaphrodites. Arthropod reproduction can occur through marriage (copulation) and parthenogenesis.
Parthenogenesis is the formation of new individuals without fertilization, where eggs that are not fertilized by sperm will grow into male individuals that have half the number of chromosomes and individual females.

Vertebrate animals
Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone. The spine originates from the development of the primary body supporting axis or notocorda (dorsal cord). Vertebrate notochorda only exists in the embryonic period, after adulthood will experience repetition into a secondary body support system, namely the spine (vertebrae).
In the classification system, vertebrates are a subfilum of the Chordata phylum. Chordates include animals that have the following characteristics:
It has a notocord, which is a hard but flexible skeleton. The notocord is located between the digestive tract and the nerve cord, extending along the body to form a skeletal axis.
It has a single nerve cord, is hollow dorsally to the notocord, and has an enlarged anterior end of the brain.
Has a tail that extends posteriorly toward the anus.
Having pharyngeal gaps.
The vertebrate body has a type of bilateral symmetry and parts of the internal organs are protected by the inner skeleton or endoskeleton, specifically the part of the brain protected by the bones of the skull (cranium). The outermost part of the vertebrate body is skin composed of epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer). Some vertebrate skin is covered with feathers and some are covered with hair.
Internal organs, such as digestive, cardiovascular, and respiratory organs are found in a body cavity or coelom. Vertebrates have complete organs, which make up the organ systems including the digestive system that extends from the mouth to the anus, the circulatory system is closed (blood flows in blood vessels),
excretion devices in the form of kidneys, respiratory apparatus in the form of the lungs or gills, a pair of reproductive organs (right and left) and an endocrine system that functions to produce hormones.