Various Types of Environmental Pollution

Various Types of Environmental Pollution
Water pollution
One negative impact of the progress of science and technology that is not used properly is pollution. Pollution is the entry or inclusion of living things, energy substances, and / or other components into the environment, or changes in the environmental order by human activities or by natural processes so that the quality of the environment drops to a certain level that causes the environment to become less or no longer able to function in accordance with allotment. This definition is in accordance with the definition of pollution in (Basic Law on Environmental Management.
Water pollution is a change in circumstances in a water reservoir such as lakes, rivers, oceans and ground water due to human activities. Lake, rivers, oceans and ground water are important parts in the cycle of human life and are one part of the hydrological cycle. water also drains sediment and pollutants. Various kinds of functions are very helpful for human life. The biggest use of lakes, rivers, oceans and ground water is for agricultural irrigation, raw materials for drinking water, as drainage channels for rainwater and wastewater, even as a potential tourist attraction.
In the order of human life, water plays an important role among others for drinking, cooking, washing and bathing. In addition, water is also much needed to irrigate fields, fields, industry, and much more.
Human actions in fulfilling daily activities have inadvertently increased the amount of inorganic material in water and polluted water. For example, the removal of detergents into water can have a negative impact on organisms in the waters. Fertilizing rice fields or fields with artificial fertilizers, then entering the waters will cause uncontrolled growth of aquatic plants called eutrophication or blooming. Some types of plants such as algae, water nails and water hyacinth will flourish and cover the surface of the water so that sunlight does not penetrate to the bottom of the water. As a result, plants that are below the surface cannot photosynthesize so that the oxygen content dissolved in water is reduced.
Other chemicals, such as pesticides or DDT (Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane) which are often used by farmers to eradicate plant pests can also adversely affect plants and other organisms. If in the aquatic ecosystem DDT or pesticide pollution occurs, DDT flow will occur.
The causes of water pollution as human activities include: household activities in the form of organic and inorganic waste which include: industrial waste, agriculture, animal husbandry, hospital waste, or particulates from forest and mountain fires erupt or erosion deposits of water flow. Water pollution can be caused by various things and has different characteristics.

Land Pollution
Land is a place to live various types of plants and other living things, including humans. Soil quality can be reduced because the erosion process by running water so that its fertility will be reduced. In addition, the decline in soil quality can also be caused by solid waste that pollutes the soil.
According to the source, solid waste can come from household (domestic), industrial and natural (plant) waste. As for its type, waste can be divided into organic waste and inorganic waste. Organic waste comes from the remains of living things, such as leaves, carcasses animals, and paper. As for inorganic waste usually comes from industrial waste, such as plastic, metal and cans.
Organic waste is generally easily destroyed and decomposed by microorganisms in the soil. As for inorganic waste is not easily destroyed so that it can reduce soil quality.

Air pollution
Air is said to be polluted if it contains elements that pollute the air. Forms of air pollutants are various, some are in the form of gases and some are in the form of liquid or solid particles.

Gas-Shaped Air Pollutants
Some gases that exceed the tolerance limits of the environment, and enter the air environment, can disrupt the life of living things. Airborne pollutants in the form of gas are carbon monoxide, sulfur compounds (SO2 and H2S), nitrogen compounds (NO2), and chloroflourocarbons (CFC).
CO2 levels that are too high in the air can cause air temperatures on the surface of the earth to rise and can disrupt the respiratory system. CO gas levels of more than 100 ppm in the blood can damage the nervous system and can cause death. SO2 and H2S gas can combine with water particles and cause acid rain. NO2 poisoning can cause respiratory system disorders, paralysis, and death. Meanwhile, CFCs can cause damage to the ozone layer in the atmosphere.

Air Pollutant Shaped Liquid or Solid Particles
Particles that pollute the air are in liquid or solid form. Particles in liquid form are water droplets or mist. Mist can cause shortness of breath if it is drawn into the lungs.
Particles in solid form can be in the form of volcanic ash or dust. In addition, it can also come from living things, such as bacteria, spores, viruses, pollen, or insects that have died. These particles are a source of diseases that can interfere with health human.
Particles that pollute the air can come from combustion of gasoline. Gasoline used in motor vehicles is usually mixed with lead compounds so that the combustion fast engine runs more perfect. Lead will regenerate with chlorine and bromine to form PbClBr particles. The particle will be scattered by the vehicle through the exhaust into the air so that it will pollute the air.
Also Read Articles That May Be Associated: Understanding Country Territories - Border, Land, Ocean, Air, Location, Impact, Threat, Agreement

Impact of Environmental Pollution
Environmental pollution and pollution bring many changes to the environment. For example, some species of animals and plants are extinct, and the presence of pollutants in vegetables, fish, and meat consumed.

Extinction of Species
Pollutants can poison various types of animals, even deadly. Various species of animals have different immunity to pollutants. Some are sensitive, some are resistant. Young animals and larvae are sensitive to pollutants. There are animals that can adapt so that they are immune to pollutants, some which is not. Even though animals adapt, it must be known that the degree of adaptation of animals has its limits. If the limit is exceeded, the animal will die.

Pest Blast
The use of insecticides can also kill predatory insects. Because predators are extinct, insect pests will develop without control. Spraying with insecticides can also cause some insect species to become resistant (resistant). To eradicate them, a higher dose of medication is needed than usual. As a result, pollution will increase.

Disruption of Environmental Balance
The extinction of certain species can change patterns of interaction within an ecosystem. Food chains, food webs, and energy flows change. As a result, the balance of the environment is disrupted. The material cycle and the biogeochemical cycle are disrupted.

Reduced Soil Fertility
The use of insecticides can kill soil fauna. This results in decreased soil fertility. Continual use of fertilizer can cause the soil to become acidic. This can also reduce soil fertility. (intercropping), and crop rotation. Crop rotation means planting different crops alternately on the same land.

Poisoning and Disease
People who consume vegetables, fish, and contaminated food can be poisoned. As a result of poisoning, people can experience liver damage, kidney damage, cancer, nerve damage, causing defects in their offspring and even death.